The system also hardened perceptions of non-indigenous folk as alien settlers. As Ethiopia prepares for delayed elections some time next year, towns will be places to watch—and worry about. Ethiopia urban population for 2019 was 23,788,710, a 4.9% increase from 2018. Although the constitution guarantees free land to farmers, in practice farmers and poor folk in cities have few legal protections from eviction, says Logan Cochrane, also of Hawassa University. New housing estates were pelted with stones, cars and petrol stations were set alight. For urban officials, leasing and administering high-value land is a source of revenue, rents and patronage. As many as 78 people have been killed in ethnically motivated clashes in the Oromia region, Harari region and the city of Dire Dawa in the past week, the Ethiopian government confirmed Thursday. In Shashamene mobs went from door to door checking identity cards, which record ethnicity, before burning property belonging to Christians and non-Oromos. Sexual violence is also reportedly common. Major Objectives 1. There is a deep well of anger in the suburbs and countryside around the Ethiopian capital. Copyright © The Economist Newspaper Limited 2021. for domestic violence, as well as state intervention strategies. Old tensions are exacerbated by two factors in modern Ethiopian politics. “At the core this is about the concentration of economic power and opportunity in urban areas,” says Eshetayehu Kinfu of Hawassa University near Shashamene. The urban populace is divided and extremely hostile to the regime in power. 15. ( Log Out /  There were widespread attacks on minorities, notably Amharas, the largest ethnic group after the Oromo. “It’s not fair,” says Beshadu Degife, who lives down the lane. “This land is ours but now it’s people from other places who are enjoying it.”, The growing perception is that towns with mixed populations are strongholds of Abiy’s Prosperity Party, which seeks to have no ethnic slant. In the violence following the musician's killing in June, at least 166 people were killed. Change ). Late Haacaaluu’s songs were popluar among a generation of Oromo protesters whose three years of anti-government demonstrations finally forced the unprecedented resignation of the Prime minister, 2018, and the appointment of the Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed. Her sons dropped out of school to work as labourers on nearby building sites. Both of these women indicated that their status as mothers has made it difficult to break free. By one count 239 people were killed, some murdered by mobs, others by security forces. But a closer look at the pattern of violence in certain places suggests that local factors such as who owns land and businesses may also have played a big part. Ethiopia has shown that in the face of seemingly insurmountable urban pressures it is possible for even a very poor country to take radical steps. The Chairperson calls on the Government of Ethiopia to bring the perpetrators of such heinous act to face justice and encourages all sides to resolve differences through dialogue and peaceful means in order to allow adequate efforts towards preventing and controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Urban Development and Construction 50 5.5. Ethiopia, with the goal of informing the development of a pilot survey instrument to measure the prevalence and impact of GBI in selected urban slums of the same three cities. Ethiopia: urban violence continues Posted on July 2, 2020 by Europe correspondent Leave a comment Six people were injured on July 2 in slashes between Ethiopian security forces and mourners attempting to attend the funeral of Oromo singer and activist Haacaaluu Hundeessaa, whose assassination earlier this week sparked protests, causing violent death of at least 80 people. Amharic-speakers are still perceived to control much of the urban economy. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! In July riots took place near Tsige’s home after the assassination of Hachalu Hundessa, a popular musician and activist from the Oromo ethnic group. Disclosure bias for group versus individual reporting of violence amongst conflict-affected adolescent girls in DRC and Ethiopia. Ethiopia urban population for 2018 was 22,678,295, a 4.94% increase from 2017. Much of their anger is also stoked by a fear that Abiy Ahmed, the prime minister, has reneged on promises he made in 2018 to end both authoritarian rule and the alleged marginalisation of Oromos. ■, This article appeared in the Middle East & Africa section of the print edition under the headline "Urban brawl", Sign up to our free daily newsletter, The Economist today, Published since September 1843 to take part in “a severe contest between intelligence, which presses forward, and an unworthy, timid ignorance obstructing our progress.”. 1 General Overview: Sexual and Gender based Violence- Ethiopia Gender power imbalance, prevalent gender inequalities, impunity and gender discrimination remain the root causes of sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) in Ethiopia2. Photo: Nathalie Bertrams/GAGE. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. As towns expanded they attracted settlers from Ethiopia’s northern highlands, who spoke Amharic and dominated urban commerce and the state bureaucracy. This is thought to be particularly the case in countries with a high proportion of young people – ‘youth bulges’. An added sore is that public housing built on land that belonged to Oromo farmers was typically given to more prosperous city-dwellers. Six people were injured on July 2 in slashes between Ethiopian security forces and mourners attempting to attend the funeral of Oromo singer and activist Haacaaluu Hundeessaa, whose assassination earlier this week sparked protests, causing violent death of at least 80 people. The singer’s killing sparked protests in Addis and surrounding Oromiya region, leading to violent clashes, which left behind more than 80 people killed. About 88 % of rural and 69 % of urban women believe that their husbands have the right to beat them. The first is the 1995 constitution, which carved up territory along ethnic lines. The slain singer’s wife, Santu Demisew Diro, gave a short speech after mourners laid wreaths. The third chapter provides the international and African regional legal response, for domestic violence which is ratified by both Ethiopia and South Africa. The conflict in Ethiopia's Tigray region has cost hundreds of lives and sent tens of thousands of people fleeing to Sudan over the past three weeks. ... who are often tasked with gathering water, are at an increased risk of sexual- and gender-based violence as … Much of central Shashamene, a booming entrepot some 200km south, was burned to the ground. The UN has warned that ongoing violence in the country threatens citizens' security and their right to vote. The popular Oromo singer, 36, was shot dead in the capital Addis Ababa on June 29 by unknown gunmen and was laid to rest later at a church in Ambo, his home town about 100 km west of the capital. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. But similar conflicts fester elsewhere, sometimes turning violent, as in the eastern city of Harar, where a minority of ethnic Harari enjoyed political privileges at the expense of much larger Oromo and Amhara populations. Oromo nationalists claim the city is part of their historic “homeland” and demand a final say over its governance. Ethiopia urban population for 2016 was 20,581,872, a 5.06% increase from 2015. Ethiopia’s domestic politics have produced violence and continuing tension over the past two years. All rights reserved. 16. “They have a plan to dominate the economy of this town,” frets a non-Oromo. Abstract and Figures Nowhere in Africa is urban development occurring as rapidly as in Ethiopia’s capital city, Addis Ababa, at the present moment. The Graça Machel Trust is gravely concerned by, the ongoing violence in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Uganda. The second factor is land. The edges of cities are often flashpoints of ethnic violence. Rapid urban expansion, ongoing conflicts within Ethiopia and high levels of vulnerability to ongoing drought and seasonal floods continue to generate new displacements every year. He leaves behind three daughters, the youngest a month old. Establishing cities sometimes involved the eviction of those already on the land, including the Oromo clans who lived on ground that was taken for Addis Ababa. ( Log Out /  Violence Against Women. VIOLENCE OF URBANIZATION, POOR NEIGHBOURHOODS AND LARGE-SCALE PROJECTS: LESSONS FROM ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA BUILT ENVIRONMENT VOL 40 NO 3 419 symbolic violence in urban spaces. 2. Ethnic violence erupted in Ethiopia after the killing of singer Hachalu Hundessa. Urban violence is regularly ascribed, not to cities or urbanization processes, even less to the gov-ernments who decide their progress, but to to violence – both criminality and youth participation in political violence and armed groups. There have been growing reports of prevailing crimes in Jenila district of Harar city. Hotels, businesses and homes were destroyed or damaged. Article 620 of the 2004 Criminal Code of Ethiopia, defines rape differently as compelled "sexual intercourse outside wedlock". However, the connection between the two is not yet well investigated. This perception may further aggravate tensions. The threads that connect the carnage in Oromia with the plight of Tsige’s family are real, even if hard to see. In Ethiopia, community policing has been announced ofcially as a national program in 2005 E.C with the impetus to nullify crimes at lower tiers. 5.4. HIV is a highly prevalent sexual health problem in Ethiopia. ( Log Out /  What mummified baboons say about globalisation, South Africa’s black middle class has prospered under democracy. #BREAKING: #Ethiopia shuts down Internet services after protests linked to the killing of the prominent artist Hacalu Hundeesa erupted in parts of the capital #AddisAbaba. In Ethiopia there is a great degree of stigma attached to children who are raised without a father figure. Disentangling urban adolescents’ vulnerability to age- and gender-based violence through a capability lens in Ethiopia and Rwanda. Women’s attitudes toward intimate partner violence in Ethiopia: The role of social norms in the interview context. Towns across the vast region of Oromia, which surrounds Addis Ababa, were similarly ravaged. In recent years towns and cities in southern Ethiopia, especially in Oromia, have been flashpoints for political and ethnic turmoil. Telecommunication 51 Social Constraints to Women and Girls 53 6.1. [Read] H.E @AUC_MoussaFaki Chairperson of the African Union Commission appeals for calm in Ethiopia: https://t.co/HZYlmgfu4H#Ethiopia pic.twitter.com/gksWUQPJyO, — African Union (@_AfricanUnion) July 2, 2020. “Our fathers lost their land, so we have nothing to inherit,” says Tsige’s son Betemariam. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. The second chapter situates domestic violence in the context of Ethiopia and South Africa. In recent months, some Oromo activists who initially supported Abiy have become more critical, accusing ignoring he legitimate interests of the Oromo people. There is a deep well of anger in the suburbs and countryside around the Ethiopian capital. Most study conducted on violence against … 2016. 1. Ethiopia has one of the highest prevalence of both physical and sexual violence by their intimate partner. In Ethiopia, all land is owned by the state. The hypothesis is that, without jobs, young people are prone to violence and pose a threat to society. But ethnic violence in urban areas well removed from the border is rare, and all the more shocking for seemingly coming out of the blue. Ethiopia urban population for 2017 was 21,609,845, a 4.99% increase from 2016. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Despite considerable progress over the past two decades in advancing the visibility of the rights of children and adolescents to bodily integrity and a life free from violence, the transition from childhood … A local human rights watchdog says Ethiopian security officers used "highly questionable" force. pic.twitter.com/RQZC0J11SO, — Somalia Latest News (@NaziifAbdullahi) June 30, 2020. Trafficking of Women 54 6.3. Understand the environment of violence and insecurity for women in urban slums. In July riots took place near Tsige’s home after the assassination of Hachalu Hundessa, a popular … So many grab lots of it, adding to the ranks of the landless and jobless. Several years ago the Ethiopian authorities confiscated almost all of it to build public housing for residents of Addis Ababa, the capital. A life of modest comfort teetered toward destitution. An UN analysis of several international studies suggests that domestic violence against women is most prevalent in Ethiopia. Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and food insecurity are an ever growing public health concerns in Ethiopia. Domestic violence is common in Ethiopia both urban and rural families. In doing so it introduced the notion of ethnic ownership of cities and towns. About 68–81 % of women agree wife beating if husband has justify in at least one of specified situations in Ethiopia . Many southern towns began as imperial garrisons after the conquests of Emperor Menelik II, an Amhara, in the late 19th century. The Oromo have long complained of exclusion from political process. This is particularly pronounced in the case of Addis Ababa, in which the constitution granted Oromia a “special interest”. under the Urban Assistance programme and the Out of Camp Policy. Here, we discuss only the violence perpetrated by men. ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia — Weeks after receiving the Nobel Peace Prize, Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed is coming under harsh criticism over his silence in the face of … In the past decade the expanding city has inched ever closer to Tsige’s village. “If you take 50 hotels in the city, only three are owned by Oromos,” alleges the owner of a juice bar in Adama, the second-largest city in Oromia. ( Log Out /  IDP community in Batu, Oromia, Ethiopia. Cannot load blog information at this time. “…While the country mourns the loss Hachalu Hundesa, the Chairperson appeals for calm, restraint by all sides and calls on all Ethiopians to refrain from acts that could further escalate the current situation” reads the statement of the African Union Chairman H.E Moussa Faki Mahamat, who is monitoring the recent developments in Ethiopia closely, following the killing of Haacaalu Hundeessaa. violence as a trigger for urban violence The now largely accepted argument that deprivation is itself a form of violence gained prominence with John Galtung’s (1991) work on “struc- Trott C.D, Harman J.J, Kaufman M.R. The latest bout was triggered by national politics: many Oromos saw Hachalu’s murder as an attack on the Oromo opposition movement. “WE WERE BORN here, we grew up here, but now we live like beggars,” fumes Tsige Bule, gazing from a rain-splattered porch towards the grey and unfinished apartment block that looms over what remains of her family’s farmland. She sold her cows and began buying jerry cans because water from the nearby river had become toxic. Women and Migration 53 6.2. Gender Based Violence 54 6.3.1 Interpersonal Violence 54 6.3.2 Domestic Violence 55 … 17. Ethiopia Ethnic violence in Ethiopia leaves deep wounds. Résidence Palace International Press Centre, Brussels. While recognising that Door to door checking identity cards, which surrounds Addis Ababa, which! And cities in southern Ethiopia, especially in Oromia with the plight of Tsige ’ s family are real even. Has inched ever closer to Tsige ’ s son Betemariam is that public housing built on land belonged! 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