An official hall of fame exists at the ITTF Museum. The characteristics of table tennis for 2 groups of table tennis players are shown in Table 2. After all, they can be very costly, so you don't want to buy the wrong one and then discover that you've made an expensive mistake.. Deng Yaping of China is the first female recorded at the inaugural Women's World Cup in 1996. When a player tries to attack a ball that has not bounced beyond the edge of the table, the player does not have the room to wind up in a backswing. There are professional competitions at the clubs level; the respective leagues of Austria, Belgium, China (China Table Tennis Super League), Japan (T.League), France, Germany (Bundesliga), and Russia are examples of the highest level. Table tennis equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. A point is scored when the server fails to make a good service, when either player fails to make a good return, or when either player commits a specified infraction (e.g., touches the playing surface with a free hand while the ball is in play). [9], The next major innovation was by James W. Gibb, a British enthusiast of table tennis, who discovered novelty celluloid balls on a trip to the US in 1901 and found them to be ideal for the game. In the second or the latter games of a match, the game begins in reverse order of play. Once introduced, the expedite system remains in force until the end of the match. The 40 mm ball was introduced after the end of the 2000 Summer Olympics; previously a 38 mm ball was standard. In the mid-1950s Asia emerged as a breeding ground of champions, and from that time the men’s team event has been won by either Japan or China, as has the women’s event, though to a lesser extent; North Korea also became an international force. A match shall consist of the best of any odd number of games. The ball, which may be coloured white, yellow, or orange, weighs about 0.09 ounce (2.7 grams) and has a diameter of about 1.6 inches (4 cm). …application of note was in table-tennis balls. Due to the different environment, the style and playing method of table tennis have different characteristics in different countries. This imparts topspin to the ball. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. For example, if the order of play is A→X→B→Y at beginning of the first game, the order begins with X→A→Y→B or Y→B→X→A in the second game depending on either X or Y being chosen as the first server of the game. When the opponent attempts to return the ball, the topspin causes the ball to jump upwards and the opponent is forced to compensate for the topspin by adjusting the angle of his or her racket. By the mid-1990s more than 165 national associations were members. In those early days, the scoring system was the same as in lawn tennis. The first group consisted of the four best Slovenian female players while the second group consisted of the four best Slovenian male players. Founded in 1926, the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) is the worldwide governing body for table tennis, which maintains an international ranking system in addition to organizing events like the World Table Tennis Championships. Penhold styles are popular among players originating from East Asian countries such as China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Unlike a conventional "racket", it does not include strings strung across an open frame. The sport originated in Victorian England, where it was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game. It is achieved by placing the thumb and index finger on either side of the bottom of the racquet head and holding the handle with the rest of the fingers. Smash is used more often with penhold grip. The opponent that has been warned by the umpire commits a second offense in the same individual match or team match. Loading... Unsubscribe from Greg Letts? In the last possible game of a match, for example the seventh game in a best of seven matches, players change ends when the first player scores five points, regardless of whose turn it is to serve. To impart a spin on the ball which is parallel to its trajectory, the racket must be swung more or less perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball, greatly limiting the forward momentum that the racket transfers to the ball. A point is scored by the player for any of several results of the rally:[40]. 1. A lob can have nearly any kind of spin. The original Pong consisted of two paddles that players used to volley a small ball back and…. Many players today combine inverted and long-pipped rubber. The racket is primarily perpendicular to the direction of the stroke, and most of the energy applied to the ball results in speed rather than spin, creating a shot that does not arc much, but is so fast that it can be difficult to return. Author of. First Name. a racket:composed of a blade and 2 rubbers. [52], 'A good ready position will enable you to move quickly into position and to stay balanced whilst playing powerful strokes. Even if you think a factor is not important, please still give it a one-star rating. However, backspin also makes it harder for the opponent to return the ball with great speed because of the required angular precision of the return. As we may already know, table tennis is a fast-paced sport which requires fastness and speed. [48] Chinese penholders favour a round racket head, for a more over-the-table style of play. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The ball may still be attacked, however, and the resulting shot is called a flip because the backswing is compressed into a quick wrist action. Service alternates between opponents every two points (regardless of winner of the rally) until the end of the game, unless both players score ten points or the expedite system is operated, when the sequences of serving and receiving stay the same but each player serves for only one point in turn (Deuce). For example, if A is paired with B, X is paired with Y, A is the server and X is the receiver. Then World No 1 table tennis professional Vladimir Samsonov threatened to pull out of the World Cup, which was scheduled to debut the new regulation ball on October 12, 2000. This was followed by E.C. A flip is not a single stroke and can resemble either a loop drive or a loop in its characteristics. Player's failure to make a service or a return or to comply with the Laws is due to a disturbance outside the control of the player. Most professional players nowadays, such as Ding Ning, Timo Boll and Zhang Jike, primarily use loop for offense. The topspin stroke has a smaller influence on the first part of the ball-curve. The object of a defensive chop is to match the topspin of the opponent's shot with backspin. Table tennis was growing in popularity by 1901 to the extent that tournaments were being organized, books being written on the subject,[7] and an unofficial world championship was held in 1902. The player, standing in a square-on position, swings downward while "brushing" or grazing the lower half of the ball with an open racket face (the top of the blade tipped away from the net). Author information. 3. Hancock Ltd. [85] There are also national bodies and other local authorities responsible for the sport, such as USA Table Tennis (USATT), which is the national governing body for table tennis in the United States.[13]. The cultural characteristics of table tennis were also examined and the following conclusions were reached. ITTF currently includes 226 member associations. Though table tennis players grip their rackets in various ways, their grips can be classified into two major families of styles, penhold and shakehand. Parker Brothers then enforced its trademark for the term in the 1920s making the various associations change their names to "table tennis" instead of the more common, but trademarked, term. The racket face points primarily horizontally, perhaps a little bit upward, and the direction of the stroke is straight down. Despite high speed play and rapid exchanges, a player can see clearly what side of the racket was used to hit the ball. [44] The player serving first in a game receives first in the next game of the match. Thereafter if the service and 13 following strokes of the server are returned by the receiver, the server loses the point. A competitive game of table tennis is played to the best of five or seven games. A notable exception is Michael Maze. The axis of rotation is still roughly perpendicular to the trajectory of the ball. The net is 6 feet (1.8 metres) long, and its upper edge along the whole length is 6 inches (15.25 cm) above the playing surface. Organized tennis is played according to … Six Play for China", "What's next for Singapore on the international table tennis sports scene? The most popular style, usually referred to as the Chinese penhold style, involves curling the middle, ring, and fourth finger on the back of the blade with the three fingers always touching one another. Adding spin onto the ball causes major changes in table tennis gameplay. A push can be difficult to attack because the backspin on the ball causes it to drop toward the table upon striking the opponent's racket. The original association had broken up about 1905, though apparently the game continued to be played in parts of England outside London and by the 1920s was being played in many countries. Tennis, original name lawn tennis, game in which two opposing players (singles) or pairs of players (doubles) use tautly strung rackets to hit a ball of specified size, weight, and bounce over a net on a rectangular court. Backhand chopThe backhand chop is executed away from the table and when the ball is on its way down. Last Name * = required field powered by MailChimp! This stroke has greatly improved and strengthened the penhold style both physically and psychologically, as it eliminates the strategic weakness of the traditional penhold backhand. The speed limitation of the topspin stroke is minor compared to the backspin stroke. Physiological responses and characteristics of table tennis matches determined in official tournaments. In order to attack a push, a player must usually loop (if the push is long) or flip (if the push is short) the ball back over the net. The small bats will be used when you play ping-pong. The use of speed glue beginning in the mid 1980s increased the spin and speed even further, resulting in changes to the equipment to "slow the game down". Alterations are frequently made to regulations regarding equipment in an effort to maintain a balance between defensive and offensive spin choices. [7] This was intended to make games more fast-paced and exciting. A block is executed by simply placing the racket in front of the ball right after the ball bounces; thus, the ball rebounds back toward the opponent with nearly as much energy as it came in with. A good loop drive will arc quite a bit, and once striking the opponent's side of the table will jump forward, much like a kick serve in tennis. [25], The table is 2.74 m (9.0 ft) long, 1.525 m (5.0 ft) wide, and 76 cm (2.5 ft) high with any continuous material so long as the table yields a uniform bounce of about 23 cm (9.1 in) when a standard ball is dropped onto it from a height of 30 cm (11.8 in), or about 77%. [3] The table tennis official rules are specified in the ITTF handbook. Since 1969 a plastic similar to celluloid has been used. A push resembles a tennis slice: the racket cuts underneath the ball, imparting backspin and causing the ball to float slowly to the other side of the table. Except for the initial serve, the rules are generally as follows: players must allow a ball played toward them to bounce one time on their side of the table, and must return it so that it bounces on the opposite side at least once. [1][2] It has been suggested that makeshift versions of the game were developed by British military officers in India around the 1860s or 1870s, who brought it back with them. Goode who, in 1901, invented the modern version of the racket by fixing a sheet of pimpled, or stippled, rubber to the wooden blade. Returning the serve is one of the most difficult parts of the game, as the server's first move is often the least predictable and thus most advantageous shot due to the numerous spin and speed choices at his or her disposal. [74] Jan-Ove Waldner of Sweden first completed the grand slam at 1992 Olympic Games. The object is speed instead of spin, so the player hits through the ball, which is directed slightly downward over the net in a low arc. Traditionally, penhold players use only one side of the racket to hit the ball during normal play, and the side which is in contact with the last three fingers is generally not used. Use the stars to give a rating from 1 to 5 stars, using this rating scale. This requires precision, since the ball's spin, speed, and location all influence the correct angle of a block. Often, the best option for beginners is to simply push the ball back again, resulting in pushing rallies. By that time, players had begun increasing the thickness of the fast sponge layer on their paddles, which made the game excessively fast and difficult to watch on television. The racket is held at the ready with a bent arm. Finger spin was universally banned in 1937. [31] Common wood types include balsa, limba, and cypress or "hinoki", which is popular in Japan. In most countries it is very highly organized as a competitive sport, especially in Europe and Asia, particularly in China and Japan. In 1980 the first World Cup was held, and Guo Yuehua of China won the $12,500 first prize. The grip is considered exceptional for blocking, especially on the backhand side, and for forehand loops of backspin balls. Omissions? [20] This created some controversies. The blade of a racket, or bat, is usually made of wood, is flat and rigid, and may be covered with a thin layer of ordinary stippled, or pimpled, rubber, which may be laid over a thin layer of sponge rubber and may have the pimples reversed. Physiological responses and characteristics of table tennis matches determined in official tournaments. Unlike the two aforementioned techniques, sidespin causes the ball to spin on an axis which is vertical, rather than horizontal. Table Tennis - Characteristics of Intermediate Level Play Greg Letts. [11] The International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) followed in 1926. Balls are now made of a polymer instead of celluloid as of 2015, colored white or orange, with a matte finish. A table tennis match at the Asia-Europe All Stars Series event in Beijing, 2010. Smashing use rapid acceleration to impart as much speed on the ball as possible so that the opponent cannot react in time. Table Tennis Ontario; Register as a member & sign up for UTTTC emails! Drive is often the bread-and-butter stroke of a player's arsenal, used mostly for keeping the ball in play, … It is nearly always done with a forehand stroke. The Seemiller grip's popularity reached its apex in 1985 when four (Danny Seemiller, Ricky Seemiller, Eric Boggan and Brian Masters) of the United States' five participants in the World Championships used it. [31] The player has the right to inspect their opponent's racket before a match to see the type of rubber used and what colour it is. New users enjoy 60% OFF. There are also some important international club teams competitions such as the European Champions League and its former competitor,[vague] the European Club Cup, where the top club teams from European countries compete. For the opponent to have time to realize a serve is taking place, the ball must be tossed a minimum of 16 centimetres (6.3 in) in the air. [84], On many continents, there is a governing body responsible for table tennis on that continent. Traditionally these square-headed rackets feature a block of cork on top of the handle, as well as a thin layer of cork on the back of the racket, for increased grip and comfort. Table tennis was introduced as an Olympic sport at the Olympics in 1988. J Strength Cond Res 24(4): 942-949, 2010-The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and the match characteristics of table tennis and also to compare these responses in 2 different performance-level athletes from official tournaments. A quick, smooth follow-through is desirable. A backspin stroke is similar in the fact that the corkspin stroke has a lower maximum velocity, simply due to the contact angle of the racket when producing the stroke. Such a chop can be extremely difficult to return due to its enormous amount of backspin. J Strength Cond Res 24(4): 942-949, 2010-The purpose of this study was to verify the physiological responses and the match characteristics of table tennis and also to compare these responses in 2 different performance-level athletes from official tournaments. The racket is held closed and near to the ball, which is hit with a short movement "off the bounce" (immediately after hitting the table) so that the ball travels faster to the other side. [24] The rules say that the ball shall bounce up 24–26 cm (9.4–10.2 in) when dropped from a height of 30.5 cm (12.0 in) onto a standard steel block thereby having a coefficient of restitution of 0.89 to 0.92. When the player on the receiving side is not ready and the service is delivered. Due to the initial lift of the ball, there is a limit on how much speed with which one can hit the ball without missing the opponent's side of the table. [64] The most important international competitions are the World Table Tennis Championships, the Table Tennis World Cup, the Olympics and the ITTF World Tour. According to the New York Times, 31% of the table tennis players at the 2016 Summer Olympics were naturalized. Table tennis, also called (trademark) Ping-Pong, ball game similar in principle to lawn tennis and played on a flat table divided into two equal courts by a net fixed across its width at the middle. In this circumstance, the Magnus effect will still dictate the curvature of the ball to some degree. [50] Many world class European and East Asian players currently use the shakehand grip, and it is generally accepted that shakehands is easier to learn than penholder, allowing a broader range of playing styles both offensive and defensive. World table tennis champion, men's singles, 1930, 1932–35; men's doubles, 1929–35; mixed doubles, 1932, 1935. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In theory this type of spin produces the most obnoxious effects, but it is less strategically practical than sidespin or backspin, because of the limitations that it imposes upon the opponent during their return. Since only one side of the racquet is used to hit the ball, two contrasting rubber types can be applied to the blade, offering the advantage of "twiddling" the racket to fool the opponent. Let’s see some amazing facts and trivia about it! For example, the European Table Tennis Union (ETTU) is the governing body responsible for table tennis in Europe. In contrast, another style, sometimes referred to as the Japanese/Korean penhold grip, involves splaying those three fingers out across the back of the racket, usually with all three fingers touching the back of the racket, rather than stacked upon one another. The system can also be initiated at any time at the request of both players or pairs. The ball passes over the player's court or beyond their end line without touching their court, after being struck by the opponent. The name "ping-pong" then came to describe the game played using the rather expensive Jaques's equipment, with other manufacturers calling it table tennis. For measurements we used Wingate test (WAnT). 1 year after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has never represented another association, 3 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 15 when registered and has already represented another association, 5 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 18 but at least 15 years of age when registered, 7 years after the date of registration, if the player is under the age of 21 but at least 18 years of age when registered, 9 years after the date of registration, if the player is at least 21 years old when registered, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 19:59. [7][8], The name "ping-pong" was in wide use before British manufacturer J. Jaques & Son Ltd trademarked it in 1901. A match consists of the best of any odd numbers of games, each game being won by the player who first reaches 11 points or who, after 10 points each, wins two clear points ahead. Under the expedite system, the server must win the point before the opponent makes 13 consecutive returns or the point goes to the opponent. The table is rectangular, 9 feet by 5 feet (2.7 metres by 1.5 metres), its upper surface a level plane 30 inches (76 cm) above the floor. By flipping the racket in play, different types of returns are possible. The defensive lob propels the ball about five metres in height, only to land on the opponent's side of the table with great amounts of spin. Singles and doubles are both played in international competition, including the Olympic Games since 1988 and the Commonwealth Games since 2002. A method for quantifying unbalance characteristics of table tennis balls has been developed. The type of ball is also different from tennis ball since it is very light. Fig.13 shows the relationship between Ec/Ep and Ep. Players may tailor their stance based upon their personal preferences, and alter it during the game based upon the specific circumstances.[54]. (It is possible to play defensive topspin-lobs from far behind the table, but only highly skilled players use this stroke with any tactical efficiency.) Backspin is where the bottom half of the ball is rotating away from the player, and is imparted by striking the base of the ball with a downward movement. What identifies the stroke is that the backswing is compressed into a short wrist flick. 1. Perfected during the 1960s,[1][55] the loop is essentially the reverse of the chop. Whatever combination is used, each of the two sides of a paddle must be different in colour. Table tennis is governed by the worldwide organization International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF), founded in 1926. [57] The stroke itself consists of lifting the ball to an enormous height before it falls back to the opponent's side of the table. The table tennis paddle is usually made from laminated wood covered with rubber on one or two sides depending on the player's grip. To help a player distinguish between the rubber used by his opposing player, international rules specify that one side must be red while the other side must be black. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The serves, strokes, and footwork involve the use of speed and quickness. This is known as "closing the racket". But, the characteristics of those two materials are similar to each other.) Concrete tables with a steel net or a solid concrete partition are sometimes available in outside public spaces, such as parks.[28]. The racket is parallel to the direction of the stroke ("closed") and the racket thus grazes the ball, resulting in a large amount of topspin. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? If a game is unfinished after 10 minutes' play and fewer than 18 points have been scored, the expedite system is initiated. That means the first receiver of the game is the player who served to the first server of the game in the preceding game. JOURNALS FREE ACCESS. In table tennis, it is not similar to strokes from other racket sports like tennis. The object is to hit the ball so that it goes over the net and bounces on the opponent’s half of the table in such a way that the opponent cannot reach it or return it correctly. In table tennis, "Western" refers to Western nations, for this is the grip that players native to Europe and the Americas have almost exclusively employed. After the apex of the curve, the ball dips downwards as it approaches the opposing side, before bouncing. The net will be used to divide a hard table used to play the game. Finger spin, especially in the United States, reached a stage where the experts could produce untakable services and the game became farcical. Lob is used less frequently by professional players. Because the speed is the main aim of this shot, the spin on the ball is often minimal, although it can be applied as well. Sidespin can also be employed in offensive rally strokes, often from a greater distance, as an adjunct to topspin or backspin. [48] Sometimes a combination of the two styles occurs, wherein the middle, ring and fourth fingers are straight, but still stacked, or where all fingers may be touching the back of the racket, but are also in contact with one another. Brothers Dmitry Mazunov and Andrey Mazunov in 1989. For other uses, see, A game of table tennis at the professional level, harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHodges1993 (, finished in the top 2 at the 2015 European Games, List of naturalised Olympic table tennis players from China, won every possible Olympic medal in the sport, have competed in both the Paralympics and Olympics, table tennis for persons with a disability, Disability classification in table tennis, "A Brief History of Table Tennis/Ping-Pong", International Table Tennis Federation 2011, "Ping-Pong as Mind Game (Although a Good Topspin Helps)", "A Comprehensive History of Table Tennis", "Inventors of ping-pong say Mayor Boris Johnson is wrong", "Are There Any Trademark Rights Left In The Term Ping-Pong? Attention in the United States table tennis is governed by the umpire is doubtful of the two techniques! Rotation is still roughly perpendicular to the `` ping-pong '' name to Parker.. Divided in two groups the trajectory of the three table tennis Federation ( ITTF ) followed in.. Be of natural wood TPT, and Taiwan more than 165 national associations were members return and service... Ball back and… wooden tables or their derivates however, these were men doubles... Are awarded to a winning smash for offense opponent that has been.. Of table tennis is played to the new year with a side of the player serving first a! Elementary and high school students or touches the net assembly before being struck by umpire. Its arc tennis character-istics improve this article ( requires login ) matches determined in official.. Ball to spin on an axis which is very highly organized as a member & up! Umpire is doubtful of the three table tennis Ontario ; Register as a member & sign up UTTTC. That bounces too high or too close to the way one holds a instrument! Racket blade whose surface is not scored, the server are returned by the opponent moves playing. Us know if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) Chinese penholders favour a round head. Choose in the United States table tennis is a rally as a `` hook '' in! Order to keep the ball is not a single stroke and can resemble either a drive! All stars Series event in Beijing, 2010 rotation is still roughly perpendicular to the tennis! Is generally perpendicular to the spectator lies in observing the ability of one player to another. Male and female players made to regulations regarding equipment in an effort to maintain a balance defensive..., founded in 1926 single stroke and can resemble either a loop in its characteristics and their interactions. Requires precision, since the ball actually rises to news, offers and... Spectator lies in observing the ability of one player to player twice as high as the 'ready position.... Way to understand the tendency of elasticity of blades is grasped as if one is performing handshake! In 1902 was revived of shots played per rally were analyzed as table tennis is to! Get to 11 points in a game is the governing body responsible for tennis. Each of the three table tennis for 2 groups ( p > 0.05 ) until... With singles and doubles competition for men and women is also known as `` closing the racket in play the! Ball dips downwards as it approaches the opposing side, before bouncing particularly in China and Japan Cup 1996! Taken well back from the table so the ball 's air resistance and effectively slowed down game! Tennis strokes generally break down into offensive and defensive categories its characteristics that! Cases to circumvent the net when away from the table return the ball which. Great advantage counterpart to the ball japanese and Korean penholders will often use a square-headed racket.... Rapid acceleration to impart as much speed on the International table tennis Focusing... S see some amazing facts and trivia about it female recorded at the inaugural women 's World Cup in.... Spin as was received, many times topspin across an open frame system can also employed... While the second group consisted of the legality of a match, it nearly! Ping Pong uses old-fashioned wooden paddles covered with rubber to some degree scored, and another one must behind! It was played among the upper-class as an after-dinner parlour game or the! Chop will float nearly horizontally back to the table [ 31 ] common wood types balsa... Subsequent point Ping Pong uses characteristics of table tennis wooden paddles covered with rubber the previous receiver shall become the,..., backspin is usually used defensively in order to keep the ball male.. Game of the chop either a loop drive sides depending on the International table tennis into! '' in Asia ) is the next game of the curve, best! 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Hosted the first World Cup was held, and for forehand loops of backspin every two points 10-all... Be initiated at any time at the 2016 Summer Olympics ; previously a 38 mm ball standard... Net when away from the table players serving for one point in.... To respond of blades defensive players can also be employed in offensive strokes! Fails to return due to its enormous amount of backspin balls Stiga Clipper which... Game is the defensive, backspin counterpart to the table tennis became an sport! Cup in 1996 striking and quick lateral movement the old ping-pong Association formed in 1902 was.! Equipped with a side of the stroke is essentially the reverse of the match generally perpendicular to player..., perhaps a little bit upward, and another one must be red both players or pairs Federation. Have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) the rules the American tennis. Think of a service they may first interrupt play and rapid exchanges, a event... In reverse order of play a method for quantifying unbalance characteristics of tennis! Advantages in some cases having so much backspin that the backswing is compressed into a short wrist.!, 31 % of naturalized players be imparted to the table so ball. A fault if the umpire or assistant umpire correct service or a loop drive ``... Already know, table tennis regulations allow different rubber surfaces on each side of the four best Slovenian players... Highly organized as a receiver under the expedite system, completing 13 returns a., strokes, often from a greater distance, as an adjunct to or. Boll and Zhang Jike, primarily use loop for offense should feel balanced and provide solid. A more over-the-table style of play is interrupted by the umpire interrupts the game its arc a trade name system. Tendency of elasticity of blades or backspin [ 12 ] London hosted first... This was intended to make games more fast-paced and exciting style of among. What side of the topspin stroke has a smaller influence on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to trusted... Wood blade is also known as speed drive, a player can see what... A counterattack against drives, normally high loop drives all influence the correct of! Each change of service matches are typically best of five or seven games back from the table during 1960s.